The Glasgow Naturalist

Volume 23 Parti 1996

Journal of


The Glasgow Natural History Society

(formerly The Andersonian Naturalists of Glasgow)

The object of the Society is the encouragement of the study of natural history in all its branches, by meeting for read- ing and discussing papers and exhibiting specimens and by excursions for field work. The Glasgow Natural History Society meets at least once a month except during July and August, in the University of Glasgow or the Glasgow Art Gallery and Museum.

The present rates of subscription per annum are: for Ordinary Members, £12 (£1 1 if paid before the A.G.M.); Family Members, £2 extra; Junior Members (under 21), £5; School Members, £1. Payment by Direct Debit is encouraged.

Further information regarding the Society's activities and membership application forms are obtainable from the Gen- eral Secretary, c/o Natural History Department. Museum & Art Gallery. Kelvingrove, Glasgow, G3 SAG.

The Glasgow Naturalist

Published by the Glasgow Natural History Society February 1996

ISSN 0373-24 1 X Price £6.00

Edited by J.R. Downie with the assistance of J.H. Dickson, R.H. Dobson, A.McG. Stirling, I.C. Wilkie and T.N. Tait.

Contributions are invited, especially when they bear on the natural history of Scotland. A note of information for con- tributors is printed on the inside back cover.

A limited number of advertisements can be accepted and enquiries should be sent to the Editor.

Back numbers available are listed on the inside back cover.

Publications of Glasgow Natural History Society

Bound copies of the following may be obtained from the Librarian at the address given on the inside of the back cover and at the prices shown:

The Flora of the Clyde Area (Original printing). J.R. LEE, Price £7.50 to members of GNHS and to the book trade; £10.00 to others (p. &p. 50p extra). This is still the only work of its type and is in diminishing supply.

The Flora of Ailsa Craig. B. ZONFRILLO, 1994. Price £2.50 plus p. & p. 25p.

The Vascular Plants of Northern Ardnamurchan (with additions). R. H. DOBSON, 1983. Price £1.00 plus p. & p. 25p. The Natural History of the Muck Islands. N. Ebudes:

1. Introduction and Vegetation with a List of Vascular Plants. R.H. DOBSON & R.M. DOBSON, 1985. Price £1.00 plus p. & p. 25p.

3. Seabirds and Wildfowl. R.H. DOBSON & R.M. DOBSON, 1986. Price £1.00 plus p. & p. 25p.

5. Landbirds. R.H. DOBSON, 1988. Price £1.00 plus p. & p. 25p.



























The Glasgow Naturalist

Volume 23, Part 1 1996 CONTENTS


Full Papers

JUL 1 5 1996


A monster

(David William Searle Memorial Prize essay)

The legacy of the Loch Lomondside wolf

Strathclyde University Herbarium - computerised Database

Alien Crane's - bills in Lanarkshire

Cotoneasters continued

Lismore Flora: Flowering Plants and Ferns

Scottish Insect Records for 1 994

Caddis flies (Trichoptera) from Fetlar, Shetland

Aquatic Heteroptera on Arran

The seasonal occurrence of some prominent zooplankton species in Rough Firth. Ill Decapod Larvae

r. Paul Walton

John Mitchell

Peter Macpherson & Keith Watson

Peter Macpherson

... P. Macpherson & E.L.S. Lindsay

Bernard H. Thompson

E.G. Hancock

K.A. Kennedy

T. Huxley

T.G. Skinner

Short Notes (compiled by A. McG. Stirling)

Peter Goodfellow

Scrophularia peregrina L. (Nettle-leaved Figwort) in two

Milngavie gardens

Two Sedges new to the Glasgow Section of Lanarkshire

Pillwort at Loch Lomond

Limosella aquatica L. at Loch Lomond National Nature Reserve

Dual trees on Inchlonaig

Lyme disease and tick removal

A further locality for the Purple Hairstreak Butterfly

The Death's-head hawk-moth in Ayrshire

A further record of Sea Lamprey, Petromyzon marinus L

in the River Clyde

Humpback Whale (Megaptera noveangliae) in the Clyde estuary

A specimen of the Fan Mussel Pinna fragilis (Pennant) from the Firth of Clyde

Overwintering common frog tadpoles

Update on Kingfishers on the River Kelvin

Parasites on parasite

N.R. Grist

J.H. Dickson

P. Macpherson & K. Watson

A. McG. Stirling & J. Mitchell

N.J. Willby&J. Mitchell

J. Proctor

N.R. Grist

John Mitchell

.... Janet Kleboe & Garth N. Foster C.R. Doughty

Bernard Zonfrillo

Bernard Zonfrillo

Isobel Archibald & Roger Downie

Brian S. Skillen

E.G. Hancock

Book Reviews (compiled by Ruth M. Dobson)

63 The New Naturalists by Peter Marren (E.G. Hancock); The End of Evolution: Dinosaurs, Mass Extinction and Biodiversity by Peter Ward (Roger Downie); Fossils by David Martell (Joyce Alexander); Laboratory Manual for Physical Geology by James Zumberge et al (Richard Sutcliffe); Historical Ecology of the British Flora by Martin Ingrouille (J.H. Dickson); Alien Plants of the British Isles by E.J. Clement & M.C. Foster (P. Macpherson); Plants and their Names: A Concise Dic- tionaiy by Roger Hyam & Richard Pankhurst (Ruth Dobson); Orchids of Britain and Europe by Pierre Delforge (Bill Parkes); Alpine Flowers of Britain & Europe by Christopher Grey-Wilson & Marjorie Blarney (Edna Stewart); Scottish Wild Flowers by Michael Scott (Jean Millar); Trees by Dick Warner (Joyce Alexander); Mushrooms and Toadstools of Brit- ain & Europe by R. Courtecuisse and B. Duhem (R.M. Dobson); Field Guide to Insects of Britain and Northern Europe by Bob Gibbons (R.M. Dobson); Spiders of Britain and Northern Europe by Michael Roberts (R.M. Dobson); Butterflies and Moths by Michael Chinery (Joyce Alexander); Dinosaurs: the text book by Spencer Lucas (R.M. Dobson); The Chiffchaff by Peter Clement (Jane Christie); The Blackcap by C.F. Mason (N.R. Grist); Irish Birds by David Cabot (Brian Skillen); Collins Atlas of Bird Migration by Jonathan Elphick (B. Zonfrillo); The Pocket Guide to Birds of Britain & Europe by Mar- tin Walters (B. Zonfrillo); Bird Nests by Sharon Cohen (Margaret Lyth); Mammals of Britain & Europe by A.M. Hutson (Iain McCallum); European Mammals: Evolution & Behaviour by David MacDonald (R.M. Dobson); Wild Otters: preda- tion and populations by Hans Kruuk (David Houston); Collins Checkbook Series by Michael Chinery (John Phillips); Books received: Pondweeds of Great Britain and Ireland; Birds of Eastern Africa.

71 Proceedings 1994

71 Proceedings 1995

72 Officers and Council, Session LXIV 1994

72 Officers and Council, Session LXV 1995

1BC Advice to Contributors



With a new volume, a new editor. I must start by thanking Ron Dobson, who has done the job of editing the Glasgow Naturalist through 1 1 parts and 1 1 years. I have begun to discover, in taking on the task, just how much work he put into it. Natural History in Scotland will be forever in his debt.

My own credentials for the job are scant: my natural history, interests have tended to be abroad, mainly in the West Indies, where I work on the reproductive ecology of amphibians. Perhaps working on the Glasgow Naturalist will stimulate me to take an interest in amphibians nearer to home: it will certainly be educational. However, it is fitting that a member of staff of Glasgow Uni- versity's new Division of Environmental and Evo- lutionary Biology should be the Glasgow Naturalist's editor. The Division involves a fusion of the ecological, evolutionary and taxonomic aspects of Botany and Zoology - which is what modem Natural History is about.

I do not intend to institute a radical new policy: the Glasgow Naturalist will continue to publish original research and interesting observations on the Natural History of Scotland, made both by professional and amateur biologists. However, we do have a new look. After some agonising debate, I was persuaded that the shift to A4 format.

favoured by most scientific journals these days, makes sense. Other, minor changes involve some clarification of the instructions to authors and full listing of Short Notes in the Contents.

I am also happy to announce two innovations, aimed at younger (or at least new) writers on Nat- ural History. In this issue, we publish the first win- ner of the David William Searle Memorial Prize, awarded for an excellent piece of scientific writing by a postgraduate student in the Division of Envi- ronmental & Evolutionary Biology. We hope to publish the winning articles whenever they fit with our interests.

Secondly, we announce the institution of the Blodwen Lloyd Binns Prize for contributions on the Natural History of Scotland made by new writers. This is aimed at encouraging the many young people who make interesting observations as part of their degree projects to publish their results - but 'mature' writers can enter, as long as the manuscript is one of the first three they have submitted. Further details are available from me. We hope to publish the first winner of this prize in the next issue.

Finally, please excuse any errors in this edition. I doubt that it will meet Ron Dobson's high stan- dards - but I hope to improve.


GLASGOW NATURALIST Vol. 23 Part 1 pp 2 - 3 (1996)


Paul Walton

Division of Environmental and Evolutionary Biology,

Graham Kerr Building, University of Glasgow,

Glasgow G12 8QQ

The following essay is the first winner of the David William Searle Memorial Prize, endowed in memory of a highly promising research student who loved writing about biology. The award is for the best scientific article written about their research by a grad- uate student of the Division of Environmental and Evolutionary Biology. Glasgow Naturalist has undertaken to publish any of the prize essays that fall into the journal's field of interest. As more oil from a stricken tanker pours on to the Pembroke coast, with massive damage to wildlife, it is particularly appropriate to read Paul Walton's graphic account of the 'Braer' disaster. (Editor).

One of those vague mornings: post-Hogmanay drizzle forming oily pools in Glagow's gutters, prickly headache and prickly manners. Some people, it seems, can always rise above - or perhaps circumvent - these situations, and Mark is one. Bright in every sense.

- Did you hear the early news? (you must be joking, Mark). There’s a tanker broken-down 20 miles off Shetland.

I cannot remember my reaction, but I didn’t believe it would come to much: worse things happen at sea, as it were. Mark, however, was worried. Correctly as usual. A few hours later I was in the library conducting a global literature search on the key words ’oil' and ’bird'. The first reference spewed out by Biological Abstracts CD ROM: ’The melting dynamics of Mozzarella cheese in pre-cooked frozen poultry dishes', from the Tokyo Journal of Food Technology. I was not in the mood. A filthy hulk was breaking up, pouring numberless tons of stinking, lethal crude into, onto, through our study area.

Close association with wild animals is always dramatic. For three summers we had lived and worked with the seabirds of Sumburgh Head. The team had spent thousands of hours staring at the colonies from various, precarious cliff-top hides. We had caught, weighed, marked, radio-tracked, cursed and admired these birds; risen at 3.30 a.m. to spend four hours in a force 9 gale watching shags sleep (shags, it turns out, breakfast at a civilised hour). We had followed the progress of the same pairs from year to year, tracked guillem- ots which we knew individually as they dived down beyond 100 feet depth, seen green, unfathomable, in a shag's eye. A radio-tagged kittiwake, so delicate in the hand, released into a brewing Westerly. Drinking soup in a boulder-festooned hut, I tracked its movements as it departed to forage, flying straight into the teeth of the storm. Kittiwakes are small. The waves that night were black mountains. That year, all the kit- tiwake chicks died: sandeels were scarce, and adults could (or, more accurately, would) not sustain the effort required to catch sufficient food for them. We watched the chicks suc- cumb, one by one. And, we saw the same adults return the following year to breed successfully.

Now the unthinkable had happened. The TV news showed the broken monster astride rocks that were unbearably famil- iar. Our Shetland project had officially ended 5 days before the Braer grounded within sight of the study colonies. New plans had been made, new work started. We watched the dim video, shags, soiled, staggering on the beaches and the roads, and our planned lives were put on hold: we would go back to

Sumburgh in the spring. A perfect opportunity for research into the more insidious effects of oil pollution on seabirds, uniquely, with detailed, pre-spill baseline data for compari- son. More than this: those were our shags.

Late June in Shetland is a frenzy of breeding activity. Sea- bird colonies are noisy, the excitement infecting all comers, avian or otherwise. The smell and the cries put elastic bands round your stomach. In the year of the Braer, a sea-pink spec- tacular swept the banks, a display outshining living memory and stunning again and again each morning for a month. The oil was fertiliser. And the birds were there, roaring. Sandeels lined the cliff ledges, refused by sleek, over-fed guillemot chicks.

It had taken until now for the truth to sink in: this scene was a distillation of health. In the face of expected misery, relief became a kind of elation. We had never worked harder (three years’ work into one) but we partied every night. The breeding performance of the birds was good. There were some effects. Shags, unlike most of the other birds, remain close to the breeding colonies in winter, and so suffered the highest mortality during the spill. The breeding population was halved. Breeding success in shags is, however, very sen- sitive to the quality (proximity to the sea, shelter from extreme waves and weather, etc.) of the nest-site. The colony before the spill had been 'full', with younger birds having to nest in sub-optimal sites. With the population reduced, better sites became available to the first-time breeders and so their breeding success was comparatively good, leading to a signif- icant increase in the average number, overall, of shag chicks produced per nest. We took blood samples and found kitti- wakes to be anaemic (the main toxic effect of crude oil expo- sure in birds). However, they too bred successfully in the Braer year. And the oil? We did find some eventually, in a small cove near the wreck. We organised a team outing to visit it. Standing bemused in a circle, we regarded the elusive blackened rocks.

Last week a conference was held in the austere halls of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: The Impact of an Oil Spill in Turbulent Waters - The Braer. The opening presentation was a video comprising clips from media reports following the spill. 'Black cloud over Shetland', 'Worst ecological disaster in recent years', a stream of grim hyperbole was greeted with the snorts and sniggers of Scientists with Hindsight: there can be little doubt that those present were consulted in the pro- duction of the headlines. There followed accounts of how the scientific community was mobilised at short (actually, no)


notice in a hugely complex and difficult task: monitoring and assessing the effects of the spill. The scientific leadership ful- filled its purpose and gave the research effort the evasive and essential element: perspective. The scope and detail of the research itself was, given the circumstances, nothing short of astonishing. How much do we know? In a university library, leaf at random through one of the thousands of journals. We know so much.

There is always some embarrassment at conferences. One speaker had agreed to model the path and behaviour of the slick, and predict the fate of the oil. The models, intricate and hastily contrived, got it wrong. Embarrassment came at the introduction of a new term: hindcast. This is a forecast of what will happen after it already has. The models got this right. The embarrassment was, of course, the audience's, and

it was sympathetic. The Braer spill surprised us all. 84,000 tonnes of crude oil spilled on an environmentally sensitive coastline: what happened? The storm of January 1993 was the worst on Shetland's records. Three weeks of continuous south-westerly gales spawned seas of unimaginably violent energy, and the oil, an unusually light form of crude, was emulsified into the water column and transported away by currents. No true slick ever formed. Had the weather, or the time of year, or the type of oil been different, then so too would the effects. Different, but would the predictions have been better? How much do we know? We know so little, and therein lies the excitement and the challenge. And the wonder of it all is that someone, somewhere, will say the same of Mozzarella cheese.


GLASGOW NATURALIST Vol. 23 Part 1 pp 4-6 (1996)


John Mitchell

22 Muirpark Way Drymen

Glasgow G63 ODX

'Keep indoors by night and be wary by day,

There's a wolf on the move 'round Buchanan they say'.

The above are the opening lines to a short poem entitled The WW/composed around the turn of the century by Drymen poet-artist Sam Henry (f. 1885- 1909). In the poem, Henry describes the paralysing effect on a small Loch Lomondside community brought about by a rumour that a wolf Canis lupus L. had been seen prowling around the neighbourhood. Children were kept at home and no one would dare venture abroad during the hours of darkness. That is, until it was eventually discovered that the supposed wolf was nothing more terrifying than a stray rough-coated collie. Sam Henry's observations on the incident were written tongue-in-cheek, but they serve to illustrate the ingrained fear of the wolf which surfaced in the people, though no wolves had roamed wild anywhere in Scotland for over 1 50 years. Looking back at the Buchanan episode, there can be little doubt that even in the closing years of the 19th century, the ancestral deep dis- trust of the wolf was still being sustained by the oral tradition. Although today the wolf s undeserved reputation for being both cunning and evil is more likely to be kept going by well- meaning parents capturing the imagination of their children with fanciful stories such as Little Red Riding Hood, the ani- mal's former presence in the Loch Lomond area can be recalled far more interestingly through the district's unusually rich legacy of wolf place names and folklore alongside recorded accounts.

The rural place names which appear on modern maps rep- resent only a small proportion of the many individual names for familiar landmarks which were once in everyday use. Because so many of these early descriptive names have been forgotten and are now lost, it is worthy of notice that the Loch Lomond area can still lay claim to no less than five place names which bear witness to the former presence and proba- ble abundance of wolves. Four of these five wolf place names are spelling variants of the creature’s most common gaelic name madadh: Lochan a' Mhadaidh (NN 268217), Craig a' Mhadaidh (NN 332139), Craigntaddie (NS 5776), Knock- vadie (NS 473801) and Wolf Bum (NS 603836). Hardy (1863) and Harting (1880) both considered neighbouring Stronachon or Stronahaun (NS 463993) -- Ridge of the (Wild) Dog -- to be a further locality named after the wolf.

Another Loch Lomondside place name which has long been associated with the wolf is Balfron (probably Bail'-a- bhroin), which means village of sorrow or mourning (Johnston, 1904). Passed down from generation to generation the traditional story would have us believe that, on one fateful day in the absence of their parents, all the children of the township were killed by marauding wolves. Thomson (1991) on the other hand, has recently suggested that the tale proba-

bly originates from the wolf having been used as a convenient scapegoat to explain away any sudden disappearance of an unwanted child bom out of wedlock. This less palatable inter- pretation of a favourite story seems to have been at least partly responsible for Balfron High School ceasing to use a wolf s head in the design of its school badge in 1993.

Continuing the theme of folk tales, where the dividing line between fact and fiction has become blurred, several writers have referred to the deliberate firing of an extensive tract of ancient pine forest to the north of Loch Sloy to clear out an infestation of wolves. This is a story which first came from the imaginative pen of John Hay Allan (1822), alias John Sobieski Stolburg Stuart, and as the alleged eldest grandson of Prince Charles Edward Stuart, claimant to the Scottish throne. That around 1640 a great fire swept north through Strath Dubh-uisage to Glen Falloch and beyond is not in question, as the conflagration appears reliably recorded in the history of the Clan MacFarlane (Lauder, 1853: MacFarlane, 1922). However, the circumstance as recounted in the two lat- ter publications is of a cattle thieves' hide-away near Loch Sloy being torched by the avenging MacFarlanes, but with a sudden strengthening of the wind the fire spread rapidly, burning uncontrollably through the pine forest for several days. Whether the destruction of Loch Lomondside's most northern forest was by accident or design, its effect on the resident or migratory wolf population would have been the same.

Well entrenched in highland folklore is the one-time cus- tom of burying the dead on islands, to guard against ravenous wolves despoiling the graves. In describing his visit to Loch Lomondside in 1776. the Reverend William Gilpin (1789) points to Inchcailloch in the southern half of the loch as one such offshore burial ground. What is unusual for Scotland however, is that there appears to have even been a local belief in lycanthropy - the ability of a man to take on the physical form of a wolf. The Reverend Robert Kirk (1644-1692) of Aberfoyle draws attention to the alleged existence of were- wolves in his famous discourse on the supernatural. The Secret Commonwealth (Sanderson, 1976).

All of the historical evidence relating to the wolf in the general area stems from documentary sources which tell of the provisions made for ridding the countryside of a wild creature which was considered a serious threat to domestic stock. Beginning in the Middle Ages, official participation in reducing wolf numbers was initially centered on Stirling and Dumbarton Castles. An example of this is to be found in the Exchequer Rolls of Scotland for the years 1288-1290, which itemise the appointment of one 'hunter of wolves' at Stirling


(Stuart & Burnett, 1878). Until 1975, when Stirling lost its royal burgh status as the result of local government reform, the town’s coat of arms included a wolf crouched on a rock known as the 'Wolf Craig'. Dumbarton Castle's involvement in keeping the wolf from the fold is recorded through a sys- tem of local taxation which provided the garrison with meal, at least part of which was used to feed the hunting dogs kept at the castle. First mentioned in a charter of 1348, the four- teen townships of Kilpatrick (on lands granted to Paisley Abbey by the Earl of Lennox in 1227) were obliged to make an annual payment of five chalders of 'watchmeal' to the Keeper of the castle. In 1455 the right to levy this tax was annexed by the crown, payment of the watchmeal continuing to be made to the castle authorities. Over the years, this obli- gation to provide a contribution of meal to Dumbarton Castle gradually changed to an annual sum of money (Fraser, 1874; Bruce, 1893; MacPhail, 1979). As will be shown later, what is remarkable about this particular piece of revenue raising connected with the wolf is that it lingered on well into the late 20th century.

The main onslaught against the herdsman's age-old enemy came with a series of enactments made by the Scottish parlia- ment between 1427-1577, which placed the responsibility for organising repressive measures against wolves onto the bar- ons, sheriffs and bailies. These statutory regulations - which, incidentally, were not repealed until this century (Anon, 1906) - stipulated the seeking out of the wolfs breeding dens to kill the whelps or cubs, four (later reduced to three) full scale hunts per year and the amount of bounty money for every wolfs head presented for payment (Hardy, 1863; Hart- ing, 1880; Fittis, 1891). In practice, compliance with the leg- islation tended to be passed down the line, in one particular case providing good evidence for believing that the wolf was still present in the northern-most parts of Loch Lomondside in the first quarter of the 17th century. The Barony Court Book of Glen Orchy (Innes, 1855) contains an entry detailing the following estate instruction dated 1621 from Sir Duncan Campbell to all his tenants, which included his second son

Robert Campbell of Glen Falloch 'Item it is statute and

ordanit that euirie tennent within the saidis boundis respec- tiue mak four croscattis of irone for slaying of the wolff yeirly in tyme cuming, under the paine of four pundis money toties quoties incais of failyie' (croscatt: believed to be a stab- bing spear with a short cross-piece set back from the point as a stop to prevent the weapon passing right through the wolfs body, which would increase the risk of injury to the hunter through close contact with the wounded animal - see Black- more (1971) for examples. The specification of iron in the making of the weapon may be significant, for there is an old highland superstition that the metal protected its user against harm). Unfortunately, there is no recorded date when the wolf was finally expelled from Loch Lomondside, but it can be reasonably assumed that banishment almost certainly fol- lowed the burning of its last secure refuge within the native pine forests of Strath Dubh-uisage and Glen Falloch in the mid 17th century.

This was not quite the end of the wolfs story in the area however, for in 1706 we find the Duke of Montrose (who in 1 702 had purchased the feu superiority of the lands of Len- nox, including all mails and duties payable to Dumbarton Castle) pursuing the 'heritors, vassals and portioners of the fourteen tounes within the royalty of Kilpatrick’ in the Dumb-

arton sheriff court for payment of the watchmeal in kind. Having become used to paying the tax in ready money, the defendents argued that a meal levy was an anachronism, par- ticularly as there were no longer any wolves left in the Kil- patrick Hills to necessitate the keeping of dogs to hunt them down. Their plea fell on deaf ears, and again in an appeal to the Court of Session in 1712 (Fraser, 1874; Bruce, 1893; MacPhail, 1979). The watchmeal saga then leaps forward a hundred or so years, with the Kilpatrick superiority having been bought-up by a wealthy mill and factory owner, William Dunn of Duntocher, who used the individual freeholds to set up some of his political supporters as 'parchment barons' to qualify them for the vote (the use of 'paper freeholds' as a qualification for the vote was abolished by the Reform Act of 1832). William Dunn died in 1849, although the estate was not finally wound up until 1873, by which time all but one of the Kilpatrick owners and occupiers had taken up the option of buying-out their obligation to pay the watchmeal duty. The sole unredeemed share of the right to exact payment of the watchmeal tax (which had again been commuted to money) was acquired by the lawyer acting for the Dunn estate trust- ees, David Murray LL.D of Cardross. Dr Murray, who was also a well known historian and bibliophile, purchased the remaining feu superiority as an antiquarian curiosity. Fifty- five years later on David Murray's own death in October 1928, this superiority, together with his library of local books and papers, was bequeathed to Dumbarton Public Library as 'The Watchmeal Collection' (MacPhail, 1979; Murray, 1933). Right up to 1975, when Dumbarton (like Stirling) lost its burgh status through regionalisation, the annual income from this surviving portion of a local tax once levied to control wolves, was used by the library to add the occasional book to the Watchmeal Collection.


My thanks go to Graham Hopner of Dumbarton District Libraries for his invaluable assistance in unravelling the ori- gins of the 'Watchmeal of Kilpatrick' bequest. I would also like to record my indebtedness to the late Dr I.M.M. MacPhail, whose scholarly research into the history of Dun- bartonshire has paved the way for so many local studies.


Anon. (1906). The Scots Statutes 1906. William Green, Edinburgh. Allan, J.H. (1822). The Bridal of Caolchairn and other poems. W. & C. Tait, Edinburgh.

Blackmore, H.L. (1971). Hunting Weapons. Barrie & Jenkins, Lon- don.

Bruce, J. (1893). History of the Parish of West or Old Kilpatrick. John Smith, Glasgow.

Fittis, R.S. ( 1891 ). 'The Wolves’ in Sports and Pastimes of Scotland pp. 34-49. Alexander Gardner, Paisley.

Fraser, W. (1874). The Lennox \ ol. I. Privately Printed, Edinburgh. Gilpin, Rev. W. (1789). Observations relative chiefly to Picturesque Beauty on several parts of Great Britain, particularly the High- lands of Scotland Vol. 2. R. Blamire, London.

Hardy, J. (1863). History of the Wolf in Scotland. History of the Berwickshire Naturalists' Club 4, 268-292.

Harting, J.E. (1880). British Animals extinct within Historic Times. Trubner, London.

Innes, C. (Ed.), (1855). The Black Book of Tay mouth. The Ban- natyne Club, Edinburgh.


Johnston, Rev. J.B. (1904). The Place names of Stirlingshire (2nd ed.). R.S. Shearer, Stirling.

Lauder. Sir T.D. (1853). Highland Rambles. Adam & Charles Black, Edinburgh.

MacFarlane. J. (1922). History of Clan MacFarlane. David J. Clark, Glasgow.

MacPhail, I.M.M. (1979). Dumbarton Castle. John Donald, Edin- burgh.

Murray, S.W. (1933). David Murray: a bibliographical memoir. Bennett & Thomson, Dumbarton.

Sanderson, S. (Ed.) (1976). The Secret Common-Wealth & a short treatise of Charms and Spells by Robert Kirk. The Folklore Society, Cambridge.

Stuart, J. & Burnett, G. (Eds.) (1878). The Exchequer Rolls of Scot- land Vol. I. H.M. General Register House, Edinburgh.

Thomson, J. (1991). The Balfron Heritage. Balfron Heritage Group. Balfron.

The Wolf, from Harting’s British Animals extinct within Historic Times (1880).


GLASGOW NATURALIST Vol. 23 Part 1 pp 7-8 (1996)


Peter Macpherson1 and Keith Watson2

'Ben Alder, 15 Lubnaig Road,

Glasgow G43 2RY

2Science Department, Glasgow Museum & Art Gallery,

Kelvingrove, Glasgow G3 8AG


Since 1991 the Herbarium of the University of Strathclyde (Herbarium Code GGO) has been housed at Glasgow Museum and Art Gallery, Kelvingrove, on a long-term loan basis. The history of the Herbarium is described in great detail by Professor Blodwen Lloyd-Binns (BLB) in an earlier volume of the Glasgow Naturalist (Lloyd, 1964).

BLB discusses how, in the 1950's, the Herbarium was dis- covered after having been 'lost' for nearly 50 years. For the next 20 years BLB carried out a great deal of research on the collections, including the production of a comprehensive manuscript catalogue of the estimated 9,500 specimens.

The herbarium was begun with the collections of Professor John Scouler (1801 - 1876) and Professor Roger Hennedy (1801 - 1876). The other main contributor was Professor Scott-Elliot who was in post from 1896 - 191 1 and compiled a herbarium of Gymnosperm cones, bryophytes and lichens collected by himself, his students and fellow members of the societies which formed the Andersonian Naturalists of Glas- gow (now GNHS).

BLB divided the Herbarium into three parts, named in honour of the three main contributors to the collections (the use of Scott-Elliot's name appears in the manuscript cata- logue for the Cryptogamic Herbarium but not in the 1964 article):

1 : The Hennedy Herbarium: native phanerogams

2: The Scouler Herbarium: exotic phanerogams

3: The Cryptogamic Herbarium: native and exotic

In making her substantial bequest to the Glasgow Natural History Society (GNHS), BLB imposed no conditions but listed, to PM, a number of projects in which she was deeply interested and which she hoped would be accomplished. One of these was the computerised cataloguing of the Herbarium. In her late seventies BLB had purchased a computer and was learning to use it in anticipation of cataloguing the collection.

In view of the wishes of the benefactor, one of the first actions of the GNHS Trustees of the Bequest was to commis- sion the cataloguing, on computer, of the Hennedy Herbar- ium. This was undertaken by KW in 1994. The trustees subsequently agreed that J.A. McMullen should be employed to catalogue the bryophyte part of the Cryptogamic Herbar- ium.


The catalogue, produced manually by BLB, was used as the primary source for data entry into the computerised data- bases (using Ashton-Tate's dBase V4.1 on the GNHS com-

puter). The draft database print-outs were checked against the individual specimens and edited as necessary. Vice-county (VC) numbers were also added following the checking of localities in gazetteers and maps.

The database structure follows that used for the computer- ised catalogue of the British (vascular plants) Herbarium (GL) of Glasgow University's Botany Department. This allows compatible searching of data fields, in effect combin- ing the information for the vascular plants. The future cata- loguing of Glasgow Museum's Herbarium (GLAM) will result in all the institutional vascular plant collections in Glasgow occurring on a single database (of c. 70000 speci- mens).

A few problems arise by following the original database structure, as many fields were not well designed, and there- fore searching for data can be impeded; however the modem day speed of computers in some measure compensates for this. The collector's name is an example of a poorly designed field (although it should be possible to amend this in the future with a suitable program).

Separate reports, following the same format, have been produced to accompany the two databases. They both include computer generated indices of the most important fields:

1 Species name ordered alphabetically

2 Localities ordered alphabetically

3 Vice-counties with localities ordered numerically

4 Collectors ordered alphabetically

5 Collections ordered alphabetically

The assistance of Richard Weddle in generating the indices is gratefully acknowledged.

Copies of both reports and computer disks have been placed in the GNHS Library at the Mitchell Library.


The Hennedy Herbarium, in total consists of 2189 speci- mens, all but a few from the British Isles (a few overseas specimens being mounted on otherwise British sheets). The collection represents approximately 1222 species or other taxa.

Information on the individual specimens varies, but in common with many old specimens, locality details are unfor- tunately often all too sparse. There are 601 sheets containing no locality information; many of these may be attributable to an unknown person who trimmed many sheets, so that they would fit neatly into boxes (BLB refers to this person as the ’vandal’!). The remaining specimens contain various degrees of information and this allows the computer to search fields


not normally easily accessible in manual catalogues.

The named localities range across the British Isles includ- ing specimens from 13 Irish VC's (several from H28 and H39 - Sligo and Antrim areas). There are collections from 49 of the 71 English VC's (plus the Channel Islands); there are 10 or more sheets from VC's 1, 17, 34, 38, 55 and 61. There are specimens from 31 of the Scottish VC’s: 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 80, 81, 82, 83, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 92, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 105, 106, 108, 109 and 111.

The Scottish localities include many of the favoured haunts of botanists last century such as Possil Marsh, the Cathkin Braes and along the Clyde Valley. There is also a strong inter- est in the Clyde estuary area with a number of collections from Gourock, Helensburgh and Cumbrae. Classic Scottish sites such as Ben Lawers and Clova are also well represented.

In total 140 individual collectors contributed to the Herbar- ium and there are 560 sheets with unknown collectors. Over 1/3 are attributed to Hennedy (793 sheets) with other impor- tant collectors being Scouler (147), A. Bloxam (104), Leakey (1 14), W. Gourlie (40) and J.H. Balfour (30).

The Hennedy Herbarium comprises specimens from at least 12 individual collections, with 1281 from Hennedy. The next largest is Scouler with 356 sheets but there are substan- tial numbers from Leakey (114), Couper (122), Scott-Elliot (83) and the Watson Exchange Club ( 131 ).



In total 1495 specimens have been catalogued. In 125 cases the identification is unknown and many others have

incomplete information. The collection comprises about 460 species or other taxa, with the number of any one species ranging from one to 22 specimens (averaging three).

In contrast with the Hennedy Herbarium, overseas collec- tions are well represented. The wide range of global localities include 35 specimens from Vancouver and a further 33 from other American localities (reflecting Scouler's travels early last century). There are also specimens from Africa (17), China (5), Hawaii (4), Jamaica (5), India (28), New Zealand (25) and a small number from European localities.

There are 749 specimens from Scotland, but only 57 from 16 English VC's (all less than 10 specimens) and only six from Ireland. The Scottish VC's are 72, 73, 75, 76, 77, 80, 82, 83, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 92, 94, 97, 98, 99, 100, 103 and 112. Renfrewshire, Lanarkshire, Dunbartonshire and Argyll are well represented, and Cumbrae, with 5 1 specimens, reflects Hennedy's interests. There are also a number of spec- imens from montane localities such as the Cairngorms, Ben Lawers and Ben Nevis. The locality is unknown in 536 cases.

The collector is unknown in 436 instances. A total of 71 individuals have contributed to the collection, the largest being Hennedy with 330, followed by Scouler (206) the other nineteenth century botanist in whom BLB took a great inter- est. Scott-Elliot is accredited with 61 sheets.

The Hennedy collection comprises 546 specimens, that of Scouler 317 and of Scott-Elliot 252. Three other contributors had collections with species numbers ranging from 2 to 42.


Lloyd. B. (1964). The Herbarium of the Royal College of Science and Technology, Glasgow. Glasgow Naturalist 18, 363 - 368.


GLASGOW NATURALIST Vol. 23 Part 1 pp 9-10 (1996)


Peter Macpherson

Ben Alder, 15 Lubnaig Road, Glasgow G43 2RY

This article reports the occurrence of alien crane's-bills in Lanarkshire (VC77), the author being the plant recorder for the vice-county. Where no credit for the discovery is given, the record is that of the author. The first recording given in each case represents the first recording in the vice-county.

French Crane's-bill (Geranium endressii)

The first records of this plant are those of R Mackechnie in 1957 from both the Johnston and Bishop Lochs. Later in the same year it was recorded from near Lanark, by W A Scott, but without a precise locality. I have been unable to find the plant at either of the loch sites. The first of the more recent records was in 1983 from a wood between Glasgow and Ren- frew in that part previously referred to as "Lanarkshire's Nose" (Macpherson and Teasdale, 1986). In 1989 it was seen on open grassland at Shiels and in 1993 it was discovered in rough grassland at the edge of the wooded gully near Bum- side, a wood at Carmyle and near Drumclog. Abortive devel- opment destroyed the first site in 1991 but it persists at the other four.

Himalayan Crane's-bill (Geranium himalayense)

Plants were seen in stony waste ground (1992 and 1994) in two different areas at the site of the 1988 Glasgow Garden Festival. In addition there was one plant which was probably the hybrid G. himalayense x G. pratense. In the effort to make the site more attractive to possible developers the area was bulldozed in late 1994 and the plants lost.

Rock Crane's-bill (Geranium macrorrhizum)

This plant is known to have been part of an exhibit at the Glasgow Garden Festival, but plants were noted in a "wild state" in 1992 on a residual grassy bank and persist. In 1995 a single plant was noted as a result of dumping of garden refuse on a bank at Burnside.

Dusky Crane's-bill (Geranium phaeum )

Hopkirk (1813) recorded this plant from Blantyre Priory as did Balfour (1844). Lee (1933) reported it from the same location and also from Bothwell. We have no recent records from Bothwell but about 1990 J.R.S.Lyth saw it in very small quantity on the bank of the River Clyde near the Priory. In 1980 I had seen it at a pathside by the River Clyde at Cam- buslang where it is established and it has recently been seen at the Murray, East Kilbride (B. Simpson).

Armenian Crane's-bill (Geranium psilostemon) (plate - see front cover).

This plant was first seen in 1993 on grassy waste-ground at the site of the Garden Festival. It was still present and increasing in 1994 until that part of the site was bulldozed in the autumn of that year. It was however noted in another part of the site in 1995. It was seen in 1994, just within a wood near Burnside, where it is established.

Bloody Crane's-bill (Geranium sanguineum)

Plants were present on waste ground at the Garden Festival site in 1991 but subsequently destroyed. In 1993 a little col- ony was seen at the edge of a held at Peel and on waste ground at an abandoned industrial site at Dalmamock.